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Main decrees and appeals on the Circassian genocide


There are many official documents about the Circassian genocide in the form of reports by the generals of the Russian Empire's army which most clearly describe the atrocities committed against the Circassians in the Caucasus. These generals proudly reported to the Russian czar how they conquered Circassian villages, how they killed many Circassians, how they burned many Circassian villages and how they pushed thousands of Circassians towards the Black Sea.

Some of these documents can be viewed on this site in Russian and English: circassian-question-eng.blogspot.com.

Here we present to you the main decrees of official government bodies as well as appeals of official Circassian organizations on the destruction of the Circassian people.


Resolution of the Parliament of Kabardo-Balkaria Republic regarding the Circassian genocide

The Supreme Council of Kabardino-Balkarian SSR
Resolution
of February 7, 1992, N 977-XII-B
On condemnation of Genocide of Adygeans (Circassians) during the years of Russian-Caucasian war

The centennial colonial Russian-Caucasian war (1763-1864), bringing to Adygians (Circassians innumerable disasters and sufferings, does not have the similarities in the history of new era. The major part of the Adygean ethnos, including over 90% of population of Kabarda, was exterminated, more than 500 thousand Adygean population was expelled by Tsar autocracy to the Ottoman Empire.

Giving the historical and politico-legal evaluation of Russian-Caucasian war, the Supreme Council of Kabardino-Balkarian Soviet Socialist Republic resolved:

1) To consider the mass extermination of Adygeans (Circassians) during the Russian-Caucasian
war and forceful expulsion thereof from their historical homeland to the Ottoman Empire as
the act of genocide, the grave crime against the mankind.

2) To submit the proposal to the Supreme Council of Russian Federation to consider the issue
on recognition of the genocide of Adygeans (Circassians) during Russian-Caucasian war and
granting the foreign compatriots thereof the dual citizenship.

3) To assign the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Kabardino-Balkarian SSR and the
Council of Ministers of Kabardino-Balkarian SSR to elaborate the program of measures on
rehabilitation and repatriation of foreign Adygeans (Circassians).

4) To obtain the status of the exile nation for the foreign Adygeans (Circassians) through the
Supreme Council of Russian Federation and the relevant international organizations.

5) To declare May 21 as the Day of Memory of Adygeans (Circassians) – the victims of the
Russian-Caucasian war, as the day-off.

The chairman of the Supreme Council of Kabardino-Balkarian SSR
Khachim Karmokov.


Resolution of the parliament of Republic of Adygea regarding the Circassian Genocide


On April 29, 1996, the “State Council Khase” (parliament) of the Republic of Adyge adopted the special resolution (№ 64-1), appealing to the State Duma of Russian Federation for official recognition of the Circassian genocide, committed by the Tsarist Russia in the XIX cent.:

The State Council – Khase of the Republic of Adygea
RESOLUTION
of April 29, 1996, N 64-1
ON APPEAL TO THE STATE DUMA OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The State Council – Khase of the Republic of Adyge resolves:

1. To adopt the Appeal of the President of the Republic of Adygea and the State Council – Khase of the Republic of Adyge to the State Federal Duma of Russian Federation on official recognition of the fact of genocide of the Adygean (Circassian) people during the Caucasian war.

2. To submit the said Appeal to the State Duma of Russian Federation.

The Chairman of the State Council – Khase of the Republic of Adygea
E. SALOV


Address to the Caucasian people - Boris Yeltsin


On May 18, 1994, the President of Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin published the address to the North Caucasian people (“Address to the Caucasian people”), where he recognized justice of struggle of Circassian (adygean) people for freedom and independence in the XIX cent. The document condemned the policy of genocide, held by Russian Empire.

This recognition did not entail the efficient steps from the Russian authorities to suppress the results of this crime; the question of repatriation of the displaced persons to the homeland has not been raised on the state level.

The original document here in russian language circassian-question.blogspot.com.


The Parliament of Georgia Recognizes the Circassian Genocide


Based on the recommendation of the Parliament of Georgia's Committees on DIASPORA AND CAUCASUS ISSUES, HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL INTEGRATION, EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE, and LEGAL ISSUES, the Parliament of Georgia, during its session held on date 20, May, 2011, in the capital city of Tbilisi, has recognized the Circassian Genocide by a strong majority.

The draft presented from the committees has passed through voting in the parliament and became a Resolution by a strong majority, with the majority of heads of committees and Members of Parliament both the majority and the opposition who spoke during the session had shown strong and sincere support for recognizing the Circassian Genocide and the hostilities that this nation from the North Caucasus had been subjected to.

The following is the Resolution:

Resolution of the Parliament of Georgia

On the Recognition of Genocide of Circassians by the Russian Empire
Recalling the colonial policy of the Russian Empire towards Circassians during the Russo-Caucasus war (1763-1864), when the Russian political and military leadership planned and executed ethnic cleansing of Circassian territories, subsequently settling the territories with other ethnic groups;

Recalling the fact that as a result of multiple punitive military expeditions, more than 90% of the Circassian population was annihilated;

Recalling numerous official documents of the Russian Empire confirming its aggressive actions, such as artificially engineered famines and epidemics amongst the civilian population, aimed at the physical annihilation of representatives of the Circassian people;

Recalling the 7 February 1992 Decree of the Supreme Council of Kabardino Balkaria Republic (№977–XII-B) on the Condemnation of the Act of Genocide of Adyge (Circassians) During the Russian-Caucasian War, and legally and politically assessing the results of the Russo-Caucasus War (1763-1864),

The Parliament of Georgia:

1. Recognizes the mass murder of Circassians (Adyge) during the Russo-Caucasus War and their forceful eviction from their homeland, as an act of genocide, in accordance with the IV Hague Convention on Laws and Customs of War on Land of October 18, 1907 and the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 9 December 1948;

2. Recognizes the Circassians, forcefully deported during and after the period of the Russo-Caucasus War, as refugees, in line with the Convention on the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951.

20, May, 2011.


Appeal of the “Circassian Congress” to the parliament of the Russian Federation


Appeal of the Adygean Republican social movement “Circassian Congress” to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation

Federal Assembly
Russian Federation
July 01, 2005
Reception room
State Duma
Chairman of the State Duma
Russian Federation
Gryzlov Boris Vyacheslavovich

Appeal

“On May, 21st, 2005 it has been 141 years since the end of the Russian – Caucasian war of the 19 century – one of the longest and bloodiest in mankind’s history.

In the historiography dedicated to the events of that time, numbering hundreds and thousands books, articles, essays in many languages of the world, there are available facts about features of the war.

Now it is possible to consider as a fact that the war of the Russian Empire against the mountaineers of the Northern Caucasus differed radically from the wars Russia had in Europe against France, Austria, Prussia and other countries in various periods of time. Within accidents with the European countries some written and unwritten war- rules Russia executed; still Caucasian people had been put outside of the civilized society’s laws.

Archival documents including reports, official papers, prescriptions of the commanders of the regular Russian armies, commanders of «groups» taking part in battles against the mountaineers, actions of atamans of the irregular Cossaks armies testify that grades of the Russian army were not satisfied with usual military actions against the mountaineers who resisted the Empire with weapons and hands. In numerous documents there are facts which allow to draw the main conclusion that Russian policies in the Caucasus during the 20th century can not be considered as usual military activities for the successful victory to impose a will to the opponent, but as a war in which a task of elimination out from the world ethnic map of the whole nation had been put. Otherwise it is impossible to explain the reasons for unprecedented cruelty shown by the Russian armies in the Northern Caucasus, and their reprisals against the peaceful population. There had been innumerable murders of old men, women and children; purposeful distraction of livelihood of Adyghe (Circassian) ethnos- villages, gardens, fields, fodder. There had been actions of the commanders of the Russian divisions and groups which followed direct instructions of their deputies in Caucasus, who considered starvation to be the only possible instrument for the mountaineers’ pacifying.

In 1859 the war in the North- East Caucasus came to the end with capitulation and capture of Shamil – the imam of the Chechen Republic and Dagestan.

The war in the North-West Caucasus against Adyghes (Circassians) continue on for another 5 years, till May 21st, 1864.However, the Russian politicians and generals were not limited by the reached victory and subjected the West-Caucasian mountaineers to a mass deportation. According to the official information ( A.Berje) out of one million Adyghes (Circassians) over 400 thousand people were killed during the war; 497 thousand people were deported, and only 80 thousand Adyghes people remained in the historical native land. That had become in fact the ethnic cleansing – unprecedented for that time, grandiose in its scales. Displacement of the Circassians population out of the limits of Caucasus continued till the beginning of the
First Word War.

In the historical scientific literature dedicated to the tragic events in the Northern Caucasus of the 19th century, the Russian Empire’s policies are designated with the term “genocide”.It is used by foreign and by the domestic science. It is necessary to note that scales of the reprisals against the Northern Caucasus people, especially Adyghe (Circassians), according to their destructive actions fairly fall under this definition. However the tragic events on of the 19th beginning of 20th centuries had not received any political-legal estimation until our days, by the official circles of Russian Federation, which proclaimed itself as a law successor of the USSR and the Russian State Empire. In spite of the fact that in the « Reference to the people of Caucasus» with which the Precedent of Russian Federation Yeltsin acted on May 18, 1994 in commemoration of the 130th anniversary since the end of the Russian-Caucasian war, had the recognition of validity of the mountaineers’ struggle for freedom and independence, in that document there was no recognition of the fault of the imperial government for the genocide committed against the people of the Northern Caucasus.

The decision of the Supreme Council of the Kabardino –Balkarian Republic of the February 7th ,1997 and the reference of the president of Adyghe Republic and the State Soviet -Khase of Adyghe Republic of April, 29th, 1996 addressed the State Duma with an offer to make a legal estimation of the genocide committed by Russian tsarism against Adyghe ( Circassian) ethnos, were left with out any recognition. Adyghean public till now has no information concerning further destiny of those documents.

Meanwhile hundred thousand of Adyghes ( Circassians) in Russia, and about 3 million of our compatriots abroad are waiting for the leadership of Russian Federation to pass a document which would state a political-legal estimation to the action of the Russian Empire’s rulers. No reasons of the Russian politicians, jurists, historians of the past and present ( which have the purpose to rehabilitate the tsrism policy in the Northern Caucasus of 19th beginning of the 20th century under an excuse of protection Russian economic and geo-politic interests in the region) can anyhow justify extermination of the entire people.

It is known that the State Duma of Russian Federation on April, 4th, 1995 made a statement in which is recognized the fact of genocide committed by Turkey against Armenians in 1915. In the statement it was written that the State Duma «basing on the incontestable historical facts testifying to extermination of Armenians on the territory of the Western Armenia in1915 -1922, following the spirit and the letter of the convention accepted on December 9th, 1948 by the United Nation Organization the Convention on the prevention of genocide and punishment for it , to the Convention on inapplicability of limitation period to war crimes and crimes against humanity, ( November 26th,1968), yearning for revival of humanistic traditions of the Russian State, condemns organizers of 1915- 1922 extermination, expresses the sympathy for Armenian people and considers the day of April 24th, as Memory Day of genocide victims.» Probably, if having recognized the fact of genocide committed by the Russian Empire against Adyghean ( Circassian) ethnos, Russian leadership and its supreme legislative organ – the State Duma- would have showed the whole world its good will and ability to be consecutive in realization
of freedom principles and democracy, humanism and validity, in aversion of xenophobia and national, racial and religious intolerance, proclaimed by Russia – in the same way as it is underlined in the statement about Armenian’s genocide.

Adyghean Republican social movement « Circassian congress» addressing the deputies of State Duma, express a hope that the supreme legislature of Russian Federation will consider understandably this reference as well as applied documents and will express the attitude
to this issue.”

Appendix: archival documents in three volumes. Volume I (275 p.), Volume II (197 p.), Volume III (214 p.), And the Collection of international legal acts of responsibility on genocide.

Chairman of the Adygean Republican social movement  "Circassian Congress"
Murat Berzegov
06.25.2005
Republic of Adygea, Maykop.


Circassian organizations ask European parliament to recognize the Circassian genocide


Circassian (Adygeyan) public organizations of Russian Federation, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the USA, Belgium, Canada and Germany have sent the president of the European parliament Mr. Joseph Borrell Fontelles the reference with request for recognition of the genocide against  Circassian (Adygeyan) people within and after the Russian-Circassian war of the XVIII-XIX centuries.

To the President of the European parliament 
Mr. Joseph Borrell Fontelles 

The reference of the Adygeyan (Circassian) organizations to the European parliament

We, Adygs (Circassians) are the aboriginals of the Northwest Caucasus. Our customs, ceremonies, traditions, language, the way of life were developed during the millenia in this territory. Vitality of our traditions is one of the brightest features of our people, and its material and spiritual achievements – the Maykop and the dolmen cultures, the heroic epos «Narts» - are universal heritage of the mankind.

During its formation the Adygeyan (Circassian) ethnos, often becoming an object of aggression, stood for protection of its freedom and independence. The military expansion of the Russian empire initiated in the second half of the XVIII century became for our people a real national tragedy, which consequences affect so far.

During the military actions of that time they carried out: occupation of territories, purposeful deprivation the peaceful population of the basic means of life-support - destruction of gardens and crops, stealing of cattle, burning completely of the peace settlements.

Massacre of the peace population - women, children, and old men - was committed, too.

For the middle of the XIX century any organized resistance of Adygs (Circassians) was broken down. Since 1862 mass violent deportation of the indigenous population was started. Hundreds thousand people, pushed down to the coast of the Black sea, perished because of colds, famine, epidemics.

According to underestimated information of Adolph Berge (1828-1886) - who was considered at that time as the official historian of the Russian-Caucasian war - from among over one million Adygs (Circassians) they lost in the war over 400 thousand people; 497 thousand people were deported; in their historical native land only about 80 thousand people remained. However the troubles of our people had not ended with that.

Huge masses of Adygs-emigrants appeared to be scattered on the extensive territory of the Ottoman empire. Great inflow of the immigrants and impreparation of the Turkish administration to their reception and accommodation caused mass extermination of the people.

In the numerous archival documents there are data of the participants of those tragical events that allow to make the key conclusion: the war the Russian state unleashed in the XVIII - XIX centuries against Adygs (Circassians) in their historical territory is impossible to consider as usual military actions.

Russia had as the main purpose not only capture of the territories, but also utter extermination or eviction of the indigenous people from the historical lands. It is impossible to explain in any other way the reasons for such inhuman cruelty the Russian armies demonstrated in the Northwest Caucasus.

The process of Adygs’ violent deportation - both of separate families, and entire settlements - proceeded till the World War I.

Small groups of Adygs (Circassians) that staid in their historical territories suffered from the policy of the violent cultural assimilation the imperial administration implemented.

The present Russian Federation, having proclaimed the democratic way of its political development for the country actually continues the policy pursued earlier by the Russian state. By the silent approval of the federal center during the last years in Adygeya Republic, as well as across all the Russian Federation, public organizations preaching the ideas of the national-chauvinism actively work.

The final goal of such organizations is carrying out of a referendum on the status of the republic by the principle of the mechanical majority, that is to take advantage of the quantitative superiority appeared as a result of the Russian-Caucasian war (the indigenous Adygeyan population in Adygeya Republic now makes 24 percent).

Today on their ancestors’ lands Adygs (Kabardians, Circassians, Adygs, Shapsugs) - about 700 thousand people - live in 4 subjects of Russian Federation (Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Karachaevo-Circassian Republic, Adygeya Republic, Krasnodar territory) and now have no more than 20 percent of the territories from the historical lands they had occupied.

Over 3 million representatives of our people live outside the Northwest Caucasus in 50 states. Owing to that artificially created dissociation of the ethnic Adygs (Circassians) they gradually lose their culture and language.

During 142 years after the end of the Russian-Caucasian war Russia repeatedly changed its political system, but the attitude to Adygs (Circassians) remained constant - the violent cultural assimilation of the remained indigenous population in the historical territory and banning on returning for the Adygs (Circassians) expelled from the Northwest Caucasus.

On July 1st, 2005 the Reference to the State Duma of Russian Federation concerning recognition of the genocide against Adygeyan (Circassian) people was submitted. However deputies of the Russian legislature could not have overcome religious and ethnic prejudices, having refused to recognize the moral and the legal responsibility for the brutal acts the Russian state had committed in the past.

According to the Convention on prevention and punishment of genocide adopted by the United Nations Organization (New York, December 9th, 1948) and the Convention on inapplicability of limitation period for war crimes and crimes against humanity of November 26th, 1968

- following the standard principles of equality of all the peoples irrespective of religious and ethnic elements and origin,
- basing on the incontestable historic facts testifying to the extermination and the violent deportation of Adygs (Circassians) from the territory of the Northwest Caucasus,
- proceeding from that Russian Federation is the assignee and the successor of the Russian state,

We ask the European Parliament to consider in comprehensive and objective way our Reference and to recognize the genocide against Adygeyan (Circassian) people, being committed by the Russian state since the end of the XVIII till the beginning of the XX centuries.

11.10.2006

Signed:

Murat Berzegov
Chairman of the republican social movement «Circassian Congress»
Republic of Adygeya, Russian Federation

Askerbi Namitokov
Chairman of the republican social organization «Nafna»(Khabze)
Republic of Adygeya, Russian Federation

Ali Tliap
Chairman of Adygyesk City Branch of the republican social movement «Adyghe Khasa»
Republic of Adygeya, Russian Federation

Beslan Makhov
Chairman of the republican social movement «Circassian Congress»
Republic of Karachaevo-Circassia, Russian Federation

Yora Shanibov
Chairman of the republican social movement «Kabardinian Congress»
Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, Russian Federation

Can Kesgin Khurma
Secretary of the organization «Caucasus Forum»,
Istanbul, Turkey

Set Akhmet Ubykh
Chairman of the «United Caucasus» association,
Samsun, Turkey

Can Sonmez Shapsug
Chairman of the «United Caucasus» Federation,
Ankara, Turkey

Mustafa Esinlap
Chairman of the «United Caucasus» association,
Bursa, Turkey

Fehmi Khuako
Chairman of the «North Caucasian Cultural» association,
Istanbul, Turkey

Rukhi Shkhaltukh
Chairman of the organization «Friends of the Circassians of Caucasus»
Amman, Jordan

Nawriz Pshidatok
Secretary of the «Circassian Forum»,
Amman, Jordan

Adnan Orkiz
Chairman of the «Circassian Congress»
Israel

Rodin Blangabs
Chairman of the Circassian Association «Nafna»
Israel

Entam Abreg
Coordinator of the «Circassian Congress»
Germany

Fawaz Der
Secretary of the «Circassian Cultural Institute»
USA

Zamir Shukov
President of the «World Circassian Brotherhood»
USA

Kuban Hatukai
Secretary of the «Circassian Congress»
Belgium

Nart Abzakh
Coordinator of the «Circassian Congress»
Syria

Adel Khakoz
Secretary of the «Circassian Congress»
Canada



The Patriots of Circassia  applied to the United Nations with a request to recognize the Circassian Genocide 

UN Secretary General
Mr. António M. Guterres
UN Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights
Karima Bennoune

Dear Authoritatives!

The Russian-Caucasian war (1763-1864) was one of the most tragic pages in the history of mankind. Circassia – the largest and the most prosperous country at that time in Caucasus, already having a special democratic way of life and developing a rich and distinctive culture, – ceased to exist. As one of reminders of the past there was, for example, a Cherkeska – men's military suit, which was adopted by many peoples of Caucasus, as well as Cossacks and tsarist officers. The last emperor of Russia Nicholas II wore a Cherkeska as a festive outfit. Adygs (Circassians), other highlanders of Caucasus, as well as Cossacks, are dressed in it so far. And this is just a small touch to what the culture of Adygs (Circassians) was.

According to official data of the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission, that worked in 1864-1886 under the chairmanship of Adolf Berger, from among more than 1 million Adygs (Circassians) over 400 thousand people died in the Russian-Caucasian war, 497 thousand were evicted, and about 80 thousand remained in their historical homeland. The ousting of the Circassian population out from Caucasus continued until the outbreak of the World War I, when there were only about 60 thousand people in their homeland.

At present, in Russian Federation Adygs (Circassians) compactly live in six regions: as titular, related, but still different peoples: in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the Republic of Adygea, Karachay-Cherkessian Republic, and as a non-indigenous population in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Stavropol and Krasnodar Regions. In none of these regions Adygs (Circassians) do have the status of the indigenous people, although in fact they have. According to the 2010 census of Russian Federation, in total 680,737 Adygs (Circassians) live in these territories. Outside of Russian Federation they are settled in more than 50 countries all over the world. Their compact settlements are situated in Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Israel, Iraq and Libya. According to approximate and possibly very underestimated data about Circassians in those countries, there are about 3 million people.

In the XX century Adygs (Circassians) – residents of the USSR – were first in four, and then in three national autonomies. Shapsug national district, which was located on the Black Sea coast (at the western end of historical Circassia) in 1945 was abolished.

The official historical science hushed up the question of the Russo-Caucasian War. The Soviet system was designed so that few people knew about the tragedy that had befallen the ancestors of Adygs (Circassians), and even if someone had such information, he should have been afraid to talk about it. Non-Russian Circassians, who lived in freer conditions, had neither the opportunity to see each other, nor otherwise share information with their compatriots in their historical homeland. The truth in its fuller scope became known in the post-Soviet era, when scientists of the national republics got access to the archives. It was then several books on the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) appeared. They were based on reports and records of tsarist generals and Cossack chieftains concerned the conquest of territories by means of complete elimination, including civilians, on the use of scorched land tactics, which deprived the remaining people means of subsistence, about how mass deportation of defenseless people was carried out already after the war. Everything was done according to the installation recorded in those documents from above: “We need the land of Circassians, and Circassians themselves are unnecessary for us.”

Today, according to the status in accordance with the Constitution of Russian Federation and republican constitutions Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia (like other Russian republics) are states in the state. However, real state rights: to the subsoil, natural resources, to fair taxation, to have mechanisms for protection of national languages, their cultures, contain health care in the regions, etc. are missing. The regions are also deprived of rights to foreign policy relations, which are especially important for Circassians: Kabardino-Balkaria, Adygea and Karachay-Cherkessia cannot use the potential of their foreign diaspora – neither in terms of attracting investments, nor even in terms of compatriots’ repatriation. Only some managerial functions are left to the local authorities. But still, the right to direct elections of republics’ heads, heads of municipalities, and even rural settlements has been taken away from the population. The population also does not have the ability to resist elections fraud, regardless of their level.

The Supreme Council (parliament) of Kabardino-Balkaria adopted in 1992a resolution on the Circassian genocide committed by Russia, the State Council – Hase (parliament) of the Republic of Adygea – in 1996, that is, during the period of the greatest post-Soviet democratization of the country. Immediately after the adoption of those resolutions the both parliaments addressed the Supreme Council of Russian Federation (the State Duma of Russian Federation) with a request to recognize the genocide of the Circassians at the federal level. However, local deputies, as well as their voters, did not receive not only recognition of the genocide, but also just an official reply. However, as such reply may be “The appeal of the President of Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin to the peoples of Caucasus on the 130th

anniversary of the end of the Caucasian war” from May, 18, 1994. In it, the head of the state, in line with the “objective interpretation of the events of the Caucasian war”, estimated them as a courageous struggle of the peoples of Caucasus "not only for survival in their native land, but also for preservation of the original culture, the best features of the national character."

On the whole, with the exception of the above Boris Yeltsin’s appeal, the Russian governments of all the periods considered the Circassians as a hostile people who would certainly begin to avenge their defeat. That is a far-fetched accusation, in which there was not even a grain of truth initially. Over the entire period of the exile, the Circassians never made attempts to draw the countries of their residence into a military confrontation with Russia. And vice versa, they did everything in their power to ensure that their countries maintained friendly relations with each other.

In October 1996, the genocide of Circassians committed by the Russian Empire was recognized by the Organization of Nations and Peoples Without Representation (UNPO).

Since the early 2000s in Russian Federation democracy began curtailing. The results of that process quickly affected Adygs (Circassians) of the Republic of Adygea, as the most unprotected part of non-Russian citizens of Russian Federation: only about 25% of the indigenous people in it. The question arose about depriving Adygea of the status of a republic and its return into Krasnodar Region. In the framework of that struggle, which was conducted by Circassians in the name of justice, the Circassian Congress – a public organization of the Republic of Adygea – prepared a CD with a set of the documents confirming the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) and in July, 2005 along with a request to recognize that genocide, it was transferred to the Admission Office of the State Duma of Russian Federation. In response to that, the Parliament of Russian Federation, the successor of the Russian Empire, sent a mocking explanation to the activists that the Circassians did not suffer during the Stalin deportations of peoples, that is, they avoided another lesser-scale tragedy that occurred 80 years after the end of the Russian-Caucasian war.

In October 2006, the public requested the European Parliament to recognize the genocide of the Circassians in the 18th-19th centuries. The document was signed by the leaders of 20 public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Israel, the USA, Canada, Germany and Belgium. In November of the same year, six Circassian public organizations of North Caucasus appealed to the President of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin with a similar request – to recognize the genocide of Circassians committed by the Tsarist Russia.

Since December 2005, the Russian public began working with the Government of Georgia to encourage it to recognize the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) committed by the

Russian Empire. In May 2011, "The Parliament of Georgia adopted a resolution recognizing the genocide of the Circassians by the Russian Empire during the war in Caucasus."

Since March 2011, a new large-scale tragedy arose in the foreign Adyghe (Circassian) diaspora - the war in Syria. Before the war, about 120 thousand Adygs (Circassians) lived in that Arab country. Given the friendly relations between Bashar al-Assad and Vladimir Putin and in the hope for evacuation to their historical homeland, Syrian Adygs (Circassians) mostly concentrated in the area of the state capital – Damascus. However, neither the evacuation nor the mass repatriation of Circassians of Syria to their homeland took place.

In May-July 2014, at the request of the American Circassian Diaspora, the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) committed by Russia was recognized by the Administrative Units of the State of New Jersey (USA) Wayne, Prospect Park and Khaledon.

Since May 2014 till December 2015, Circassian activists – mainly representatives of the Russian foreign countries – sent a number of the governments of Eastern Europe a request to recognize the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) committed by Russia. Those were the Ukraine, Poland, Romania, Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia and Finland.

In January, 2020, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the need to amend the Constitution of Russian Federation, which alarmed Adygs (Circassians) all around the world.

02/13/2020 the Syrian parliament, apparently in revenge for the victories of the Turkish army in the province Idlib, recognized the Armenian Genocide committed by the Ottoman Empire.

On the same day the Russian ambassador to Turkey Aleksey Yerkhov, deviating from the topic of his statement on the Syrian-Turkish military confrontation, justified the actions of the Russian Empire during the Russian-Caucasian war and, denying the genocide of Adygs (Circassians), accused their modern representatives of that they composed a “beautiful legend” about a large-scale tragedy that befell their ancestors.

02/26/2020 the Federation of Circassian Organizations of Turkey Çerkes-Fed sent a petition to the Turkish Parliament demanding that the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) committed by the Russian Empire be recognized.

Thus, the relevance of the UN recognition of Adyghe (Circassian) genocide committed by the Russian Empire is dictated by many factors. The main ones are a distortion of the history of the conquest of Caucasus, lies and slander against Adygs (Circassians), one of its loyal defenders, constantly planted hatred in the country not only for Caucasians, but also for all non-Russians, growing threats to Russian national states, and therefore, the rights of peoples to self-determination, to preserve their identities, languages, distinctive cultures, decent living standards, etc. And the increase in those threats becomes even more significant with the

introduction of so-called “amendments” to the initially imperfect Constitution of Russian Federation.

In other words, the process of such “amending” shows that the position of the modern authorities of Russian Federation is akin to that of the Russian emperors of the late 18th – early 20th centuries. Therefore, the recognition of the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) will serve not only the revival of one people, but will also become an incentive for others to free them from lawlessness – both in the national and in a wider sense. This, as we can hope, will serve as the main factor in the return of Russian Federation onto the path of democratic rebirth.

Dear Mr. Antonio Guterres and Ms. Karima Bennoune! It is clear that the question we raised is not the most straightforward. The Putin regime, looking illegitimate in the eyes of the Russian people for a long time and driven into a corner by the international community, remains the owner of the nuclear weapons. And it, it seems, should not be disturbed on such chronologically distant issue as the genocide of Adygs (Circassians). But our position is extremely critical, as this genocide is actually continuing!

We are also aware that consideration of the issue of the genocide of Adygs (Circassians) at a session of the United Nations General Assembly may be blocked at any of the preparatory stages. Either the Russian representation itself or a representation of a country – Putin’s supporter, can easily cope with that. However, in that case, in our opinion, it is necessary to remember that the regime and the country are not the same things. A part of Russian Federation represented by the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic and the Republic of Adygea has already recognized the genocide of Adygs (Circassians). And it is impossible to erase from the history of the people, nor to ignore it.

Based on the mentioned, we urge you to take all the possible measures to create the conditions for considering the issue of recognition of the Adyghe (Circassian) genocide committed by the Russian Empire during and after the Russo-Caucasian war.

We are confident that even in the face of serious danger common sense must win!

We are convinced that slandered but also famous Adygs (Circassians) will revive, and their country – Circassia – will become both civilized and prosperous again!

25.03.2020

Patriots of Circassia

Non-Governmental Organisation